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8 Classification Standards for Racial and Diagnostic Records.
Note. - The present classification based upon type of crime is recommende for use in filling out the schedule "Racial and diagnostic records of inmates in State institutions." The great practical difficulty in classifying criminals os to prevent the fusion of two standards - first, the classification of crime, which has a legal basis, and second, the classification of criminalistic persons, which has a biological basis. Criminalogists[sic] have long known that definite types of persons are prone to commit definite types of crime, and thus there is a relation between the two bases of classification. As the criminal laws become more scientific, the two schemes of classification will tend to become unified on a common basis.
For a scientific classification of criminals and delinquents for institutional purposes on the basis of mental status and institutional administration, see the "Report of committee 'J' (Horatio Pollack, chairman of the Institution of Criminal Law and Criminology," journal of the institution for November, 1920.
If, in addition to the present classification of the criminalistic on the basis of type of crime, the collaborators desire to provide an additional classification of their charges on the basis of mental level and personality-complex the data will be appreciated. However, for the present studies, the accompanying listed classification on the basis of type of crime will supply for scientific analysis comparable data from institutions for criminalistic persons.
IV. The Epileptic. - Basis of classification: Prevailing [illegible, illegible ] and [illegible] manifestations.
Persons showing habitually:
1. Motor convulsions:
(a) Grand mal attacks.
(b) Petit mal attacks.
(c ) Reflex convulsions.
(d) Other motor types.
2. Sensory seizures:
(d) Other sensory types.
3. Frank mental [accessions], accompanied by:
(d) Mental deterioration.
(e) Epileptic dementia.
(f) Other frank acc[e]ssions.
4. Masked mental accessions:
(b) Dream states.
(d) Dual personalities.
(f) Other marked accessions.
5. Epileptic mental make-up or character.
Note. - This outline is based principally upon the date supplied by Dr. E. C. [Fischbein], surgeon, New York (Med. Rec., vol. 90, No. .
V. The Inebriate and Drug Addicts. - Basis of classification: Kind and amount of poison used, time and history of use, and psychiatric type of the [user].
A. The inebriate or alcoholic:
1. Regular drinkers -
(a) Daily consumers.
(b) Physical defectives, craving stimulants.
(c) Dissipated, morally deficient.
2. Periodic drinkers -
(a) Dipsomania - periodic insanity.
(b) Moral cowards.
(c) Unstable character with bad environment.
B. The narcomaniac:
Persons showing greater or less health and character-destructive addiction to any of the following habit-forming drugs:
1. Opium and its derivatives -
(g) Other opium derivatives.
2. Cocaine and its compounds.
3. Other habit-forming drugs: Sodium chloral, chloroform, ether, hashish, arsenic, mercury, [triotal], [antipyrin], ginger, cologne, [geldernium], sulfinal, paraldehyde, lavender, capsicum, tobacco, coffee, tea, etc.
Note. - The data used in this classification were secured primarily from two sources: Dr. T. C. Crothers, "Morphinism and narcomania from other drugs," and from a letter dated September 9, 1921, from Dr. Charles E. Terry, committee on drug addiction, New York, N. Y.
VI. The Diseased. - Basis of classification, Contagious pathological ailments at present institutionalized.
1. The leprous.
2. The tuberculous.
3. The syphilitic.
Note. - The above special diseases are the principal contagious pathological ailments which are at present institutionalized in the United States. Any subordinate classifications which the directors of superintendents of any of the institutions, primarily for the above types of individuals, may care to supply, will be used in the final analysis of the data which are turned in.
VII. The Blind. - Basis of classification: Causes of blindness (a) Hereditary eye or nerve defects, (b) [illegible] eye diseases; (c ) [illegible] of diseases primarily of other origins; (d) Injuries; (e) Senility.
A. Hereditary types of blindness or eye defect:
2. Degeneration of the cornea.
4. Aniridia (including colebema).
5. Cataract (lamellar, [illegible] and polar).
6. Ectopic [illegible].
8. Retinitis pigmentosa (including hemerolopia[?]).
9. Color blindness.
10. Atrophia nervi optici. (Lebers' disease)
11. Microphthalmus (including anophthalmus).
13. Ametropia (near and far sightedness and astigmatism).
14. Heterotropia (including ptosis and [illegible], which latter is also called strabismus or cross-eye).
16. Other hereditary forms.
B. Acquired blindness or eye defect due to injury, accident or disease:
(a) From idiopathic diseases of the eye -
17. Ophthalmia neonatarus.
18. [Truchoma and [blennorrhea] of adults.
19. Diphtheritic conjunctivitis.
20. Diseases of the cornea.
21. [illegible], cyclitis, iritis.
22. Choroiditis myopica.
24. Retinitis pigmentosa, acquired.
25. Retinitis apoplectica.
27. Detachment of retina.
29. Idiopathic optic-nerve atrophy.
30. Tumors of the eye and its surroundings.
(b) Injuries -
32. Direct injury of the eye.
33. Unsuccessful operations.
34. Injuries of the head.
35. Traumatic sympathetic ophthalmia.
(c ) The eye disease being in consequence of disease of the body -
36. Diseases of the eye from syphilis.
37. Gonorrheal conjunctivitis.
38. [illegible] diseases of the eye.
39. Iridochor[o]ditis with meningitis.