164 The Eugenics Review
pure Fair-Caucasians) that the offspring are inferior to either of their parents. "They are often mentally and physically unsound; they are more likely to be a burden on the State, both from moral and physical infirmity; they are for more subject to tuberculosis." He urges that "until we have more definite knowledge of the effect of race-crossings, we shall certainly do out best to avoid crossings between widely different races." "Crossings," he repeats, "between widely different races can lower the physiological and mental level."
Professor H. Lundborg, of Sweden, supports this view and urges that "we must also pay great attention to immigration so that inferior individuals belonging to races cannot enter the country and settle without any hindrance. A mixture between nations who, from a race-biological point of view, stand high and others containing lower race-elements is certainly to be condemned."
In connection with the Mongolian-Negro hybrid, there is little recent scientific observation. As the Mongolian is closer, biologically to the Negro than is the Caucasian, my impression is that the Mongolian-Negro cross is less detrimental. Cases occur, for example in Jamaica, but they are not regarded with enthusiasm, either socially or biologically.
Sociological Problem of Race Mixture
That is the biological side, but we must remember that immigration of different races leads to the complication of a whole host of administrative problems which are all too difficult already in modern civilization. One need only instance the segregation of races, as in the "Jim Crow" cars on railways in the Southern States; the racial friction which often expresses itself in lynchings; the economic problems and trade disputes due to wage-cutting and to different standards of living; the legal problems, often of the most distressing kind, due to laws in the United States rendering illegal marriages between white and coloured persons, and the profound effect upon the life of the nation produced by the Negroes and hybrids.
It is not generally realized how great is this effect already. It is likely to become even greater. Not only because the number of people with some negro blood in their veins is increasing (and I would remind you that there are some twelve million Negroes and coloured persons in the States), but also because the Negro is increasing in material prosperity and in education. It will become progressively more difficult to limit his political power in the Southern States and his political power in the North is much greater than it was before the war. Little wonder, then, that there are many Americans who feel that all is not well with their culture, art, music, sexual-morality, family-life and religion, and who attribute much of the alleged deterioration to the effect of the extraordinary mixture of races and colours and unassimilated aliens present in the "Melting Pot," as Israel Zangwill termed the United States.
A Controlled Experiment
But for those who feel that we cannot yet see the end of the greatest experiment on earth in race-mixing, a striking historical case exists in the fate of the people of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, after they began to marry freely with foreigners. It may be recalled yow they rapidly forsook their religion and became idolaters, soon acquiring all the vices of the surrounding nations and losing their own virtues. They deteriorated until they became so weak that they fell a prey to their neighbors, the Assyrians. Later, the same thing happened to the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The prophet Nehemiah well knew both the direct and the indirect effects of race-mixture, and it was not without good reason that he cried to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, after their return from Babylon: "Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to trespass against our God in marrying strange women" (xiii, 27). The parallelism is striking. The same sequence of events occurred both in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and then, more than a centure later, in the